Saturday, July 13, 2024
DiseasesNews

Iridocyclitis

Iridocyclitis, a type of anterior uveitis, is a condition in which the uvea of the eye is inflamed.
Iridocyclitis is Inflammation of the iris and the ciliary body.

Symptoms

Symptoms include:
Photophobia
Redness
Watering of the eyes
Lacrimation
Miosis, constriction of the pupil
Blurred vision
Synechia

Causes

Iridocyclitis is usually caused by direct exposure of the eyes to chemicals, particularly lachrymators, but can also be caused by ocular viral infection such as herpes zoster (i.e. herpetic iridocyclitis).
Can also be associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (also known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis). Seen usually with the pauciarticular type in females but polyarticular types are also at risk.

Types

There are six classifications of iridocyclitis.
Acute or chronic
Acute
Sudden symptomatic onset, lasting no more than six weeks.
Chronic

Persisting for more than six weeks, possibly asymptomatic. Chronic iridocyclitis is usually associated with systemic disorders including ankylosing spondylitis, Behçet’s syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome, sarcoidosis, syphilis, tuberculosis, and Lyme disease.

Exogenous or endogenous

Exogenous
Related to external damage to the uvea or invasion of external microbes

Endogenous
Related to internal microbes

Granulomatous or non-granulomatous
Granulomatous
Accompanied by large keratic precipitates
Non-granulomatous
Accompanied by smaller keratic precipitates

Treatment

The treatment for uveitis depends on the cause. Treatment is focused on the controlling any underlying disease that may be responsible for the uveitis. Treatment for uveitis may include eye drops, oral corticosteroids, or medications that suppress the immune system. Close follow-up is important since uveitis can recur.

Specific treatment for uveitis may include:
Cycloplegics for uveitis:
Eye drops that dilate the pupil
Cyclopentolate (Cyclogyl)
Atropine (Isopto)
Homatropine (Isopto)

Corticosteroid eye drops for uveitis:
Prednisolone (Pred Forte)
Corticosteroid injections for uveitis
Triamcinolone (Amcort, Kenalog, Aristocort)

Oral corticosteroids for uveitis:
Prednisone (Deltasone)
Methylprednisolone (Medrol)

Medications that suppress the immune system:
Azathioprine (Imuran)
Methotrexate (Rheumatrex)
Mycophenolate (CellCept)
Cyclosporin (Sandimmune, Neoral)
Tacrolimus (Prograf)
Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan, Neosar)
Chlorambucil (Leukeran)

Surgery for uveitis:
Depending on the cause, surgery may be required
Inflammation must resolve before surgery is considered

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